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         Superconductors:     more books (100)
  1. Applications of High Temperature Superconductors to Electric Power Equipment by Swarn S. Kalsi, 2011-01-11
  2. New Research on Ybco Superconductors by David M. Friedman, 2008-05-13
  3. Experimental Techniques: Cryostat Design, Material Properties and Superconductor Critical-Current Testing by Jack Ekin, 2006-12-07
  4. The Physics of Superconductors: Introduction to Fundamentals and Applications by V.V. Schmidt, 2010-11-02
  5. Magnetic Properties of Uranium Based Ferromagnetic Superconductors (Stand Alone Dup) by Serdar Sakarya, 2007-01-15
  6. Theory of Fluctuations in Superconductors (International Series of Monographs on Physics) by Anatoly Larkin, Andrei Varlamov, 2005-03-17
  7. High-Temperature Superconductors (Springer Series in Materials Science) by Ajay Kumar Saxena, 2009-10-28
  8. The Theory of Superconductivity in the High-Tc Cuprate Superconductors by P. W. Anderson, 1997-08-04
  9. Vortices in Unconventional Superconductors and Superfluids (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences)
  10. Progress in High-Temperature Superconductors by The American Ceramic Society (ACerS), 2004-03-28
  11. Vortices in Unconventional Superconductors and Superfluids (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences)
  12. High-Temperature Superconductors (Springer Series in Materials Science) by Ajay Kumar Saxena, 2009-10-28
  13. The Physics of Composite Superconductors by A. Vl Gurevich, R. G. Mints, et all 1996-06
  14. Flux Pinning in Superconductors by Teruo Matsushita, 2010-11-30

1. Superconductors
A great place to start learning about superconductors. Start here! Arizona State University. One of the top Internet education
http://www.superconductors.org/
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What is a Superconductor ?
The History of Superconductors

Uses for Superconductors

Type 1 Superconductors
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"A great place to start learning about superconductors. Start here!" - Arizona State University One of "the top Internet education sites..." - Innovative Teaching "The best information online about superconductivity." - Energy Science News "Superlative...invaluable...endlessly informative." - Netsurfer Science "The greatest Superconductor site on earth." - Michigan State University Over 1,735,493 Super people have found this Index page since July 2, 1999. SUPERCONDUCTORS.ORG is a non-profit, non-affiliated website intended to introduce beginners and non-technical people to the world of superconductors.

2. Living Up To The Hype: Superconductors - NASA Science
NASA research is unlocking the amazing potential of hightemperature superconductors.
http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2003/05feb_superconductor/
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  • Home Big Questions Earth Heliophysics ... Science@NASA Headline News → Living up to the Hype: Superconductors
    Living up to the Hype: Superconductors
    Living up to the Hype: Superconductors
    NASA research is unlocking the amazing potential of high-temperature superconductors.
    Listen to this story via streaming audio , a downloadable file , or get help February 5, 2003:  Few technologies ever enjoy the sort of rock-star celebrity that superconductors received in the late 1980s.
    Headlines the world over trumpeted the discovery of "high temperature" superconductors (abbreviated HTS), and the media and scientists alike gushed over the marvels that we could soon expect from this promising young technology. Levitating 300-mph trains, ultra-fast computers, and cheaper, cleaner electricity were to be just the beginning of its long and illustrious career. Above :  The experimental "maglev" train, currently being tested by Japan's

3. Superconductivity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Anatoly Larkin; Varlamov, Andrei, Theory of Fluctuations in superconductors, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2005 (ISBN 0198528159)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconductivity
Superconductivity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor , cooled with liquid nitrogen . Persistent electric current flows on the surface of the superconductor, acting to exclude the magnetic field of the magnet (the Faraday's law of induction ). This current effectively forms an electromagnet that repels the magnet. A high-temperature superconductor levitating above a magnet Superconductivity is an electrical resistance of exactly zero which occurs in certain materials below a characteristic temperature . It was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911. Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines , superconductivity is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. It is also characterized by a phenomenon called the Meissner effect , the ejection of any sufficiently weak magnetic field from the interior of the superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting state. The occurrence of the Meissner effect indicates that superconductivity cannot be understood simply as the idealization of perfect conductivity in classical physics The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as the temperature is lowered. However, in ordinary

4. Superconductors
An element, intermetallic alloy, or compound that will conduct electricity without
http://www.scribd.com/doc/32363994/Superconductors

5. Superconductor History
T h e H i s t o r y o f S u p e r c o n d u c t o r s superconductors, materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity, are one of the last
http://www.superconductors.org/history.htm
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T h e H i s t o r y o f
S u p e r c o n d u c t o r s
Superconductors , materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity, are one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery. Not only have the limits of superconductivity not yet been reached, but the theories that explain superconductor behavior seem to be constantly under review. In 1911 superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of Leiden University (shown above). When he cooled it to the temperature of liquid helium, 4 degrees Kelvin (-452F, -269C), its resistance suddenly disappeared. The Kelvin scale represents an "absolute" scale of temperature. Thus, it was necessary for Onnes to come within 4 degrees of the coldest temperature that is theoretically attainable to witness the phenomenon of superconductivity. Later, in 1913, he won a Nobel Prize in physics for his research in this area.
The next great milestone in understanding how matter behaves at extreme cold temperatures occurred in 1933. German researchers Walther Meissner (above left) and Robert Ochsenfeld (above right) discovered that a superconducting material will repel a magnetic field (below graphic). A magnet moving by a conductor induces currents in the conductor. This is the principle on which the electric generator operates. But, in a superconductor the induced currents exactly mirror the field that would have otherwise penetrated the superconducting material - causing the magnet to be repulsed. This phenomenon is known as strong diamagnetism and is today often referred to as the "Meissner effect" (an eponym). The Meissner effect is so strong that a magnet can actually be

6. Conductive Ceramics :: Superconductors -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
conductive ceramics, superconductors, Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Superconductivity is the complete disappearance of electric resistance in materials that are cooled to
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/131690/conductive-ceramics/76755/Super
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conductive ceramics
Table of Contents: conductive ceramics Article Article Thick-film and thin-film resistors and e... Thick-film and thin-film resistors and electrodes Heating elements Heating elements Thermistors Thermistors Gas sensors Gas sensors - Carbon monoxide sensors Carbon monoxide sensors - Oxygen sensors Oxygen sensors Batteries and fuel cells Batteries and fuel cells - Batteries Batteries - Fuel cells Fuel cells Superconductors Superconductors Additional Reading Additional Reading Citations
Superconductors
Superconductivity is the complete disappearance of electric resistance in materials that are cooled to extremely low temperatures. The temperature at which resistance ceases is referred to as the

7. High-temperature Superconductivity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Hightemperature superconductors (abbreviated high-T c or HTS) are materials that have a superconducting transition temperature (T c) above 30 K (−243.2 C).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-temperature_superconductors
High-temperature superconductivity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from High-temperature superconductors Jump to: navigation search Unsolved problems in physics What causes superconductivity at temperatures above 50 kelvin High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high- T c or HTS ) are materials that have a superconducting transition temperature ( T c theoretically possible T c . The first high- T c superconductor was discovered in 1986 by IBM Researchers Karl Müller and Johannes Bednorz , for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987. Until Fe-based superconductors were discovered in 2008, the term high-temperature superconductor was used interchangeably with cuprate superconductor for compounds such as bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide ( BSCCO ) and yttrium barium copper oxide ( YBCO "High-temperature" has three common definitions in the context of superconductivity:
  • BCS theory Having a transition temperature that is a larger fraction of the Fermi temperature than for conventional superconductors such as elemental mercury or lead . This definition encompasses a wider variety of unconventional superconductors and is used in the context of theoretical models.
  • 8. Superconductors - Definition And More From The Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
    Definition of word from the MerriamWebster Online Dictionary with audio pronunciations, thesaurus, Word of the Day, and word games.
    http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/superconductors

    9. CAN SUPERCONDUCTORS – High Temperature Superconductors For Practical Applicati
    Bulk high temperature superconductors. Current Leads Targets Tubes for Current Limiters; Bi2223 tubes with silver covered ends of a low contact resistance – suitable for current
    http://www.can-superconductors.com/

    10. Iron-based Superconductors
    Ironbased superconductors. The nature of the magnetic order in superconductors has had a rich and interesting history, and has been a special topic of interest ever since the
    http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/staff/jeff/IronSuperconductors.html
    Iron-based Superconductors The nature of the magnetic order in superconductors has had a rich and interesting history, and has been a special topic of interest ever since the parent materials of the high T C cuprates were found to be antiferromagnetic Mott insulators that exhibit huge exchange energies within the Cu-O planes. The recent discovery of superconductivity in the rare-earth ( R ) iron-based oxide systems R O 1-x F x FeAs ( R = rare earth ) and the (Ca,Ba,Sr) 1-x K x Fe As has generated enormous interest because these materials are the first non-copper oxide superconductors with T c 's exceeding 50 K. The parent (non-superconducting) materials like LaOFeAs and SrFe As are metallic but show anomalies near 150-200 K in both resistivity and dc magnetic susceptibility. We have used neutron scattering at the NCNR to explore the crystal and magnetic structures of a number of these materials, and have found that the parent materials undergo an abrupt structural distortion below ~150-200 K (depending on the system), changing the symmetry from tetragonal (space group P4/nmm ) to orthorhombic (space group Cmma , or equivalently monoclinic, space group P112/n ) at low temperatures. This structural transition is the primary cause of transport and thermodynamic anomalies, but it is closely followed by the development of long range SDW-type antiferromagnetic order, at or just below the structural transition. The magnetic structures are all simple, commensurate configurations, but with a small ordered moment ranging from 0.25 to1 Bohr magnetons. The small moment indicates that these are itinerant electron systems, and that the ordering can be described as the spin-density-wave type. The measured spin wave dispersion relations yield a magnon bandwidth of ~0.2 eV, a very large energy scale compared to the ordering temperature, again much like the cuprates. Doping the system suppresses both the magnetic order and structural distortion in favor of superconductivity. Therefore, much like high-

    11. Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: The Superconductor Collection
    Illustrates how superconductors appear under a microscope.
    http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/superconductor/super.html
    The Superconductor Collection
    Ceramic Superconductor Single Crystal
    Superconductors
    Superconductivity is a phenomenon characterized by the disappearance of electrical resistance in various metals, alloys, and compounds when they are cooled below a certain level, usually termed the critical temperature (Tc). The phenomenon was first observed in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who noted that the resistance of a frozen mercury rod abruptly dropped to zero when cooled to the boiling point of helium (4.2 Kelvin). Onnes is also credited with realizing that a material in a superconducting state can be returned to its standard, nonsuperconducting condition through exposure to a strong magnetic field of a certain critical value or by passing a large current through it. For his significant findings, Onnes was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize for Physics. Yet, another 20 years would pass before any other major discoveries regarding superconductors would be unearthed, scientists believing for many years that other than their intriguing lack of resistance, superconductors acted as other materials. In 1933, however, Walter Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discovered that superconducting materials displayed an unusually high level of diamagnetism (the ability to repel magnetic fields completely). Now known as the

    12. HowStuffWorks "What Is Superconductivity?"
    One final property of superconductors is that when two of them are joined by a thin, insulating layer, it is easier for the electron pairs to pass from one superconductor to
    http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/question610.htm
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      Nuclear Power Videos Superconductivity is a phenomenon observed in several metals and ceramic materials. When these materials are cooled to temperatures ranging from near absolute zero (-459 degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Kelvin, -273 degrees Celsius) to liquid nitrogen temperatures (-321 F, 77 K, -196 C), they have no electrical resistance. The temperature at which electrical resistance is zero is called the critical temperature T c ) and varies with the individual material. For practical purposes, critical temperatures are achieved by cooling materials with either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen. The following table shows the critical temperatures of various superconductors: Material Type T c (K) Zinc metal Aluminum metal Tin metal Mercury metal YBa Cu O ceramic TlBaCaCuO ceramic Because these materials have no electrical resistance, meaning electrons can travel through them freely, they can carry large amounts of electrical current for long periods of time without losing energy as heat. Superconducting loops of wire have been shown to carry electrical currents for several years with no measurable loss. This property has implications for

    13. Title Page
    Type I superconductors consist of only one element, either a metal or metalloid. These superconductors typically have the lowest critical temperatures for which they reach their
    http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Aaron_Kennard/Two Types.html
    SUPERCONDUCTORS
    The Two Types of Superconductors
    Type 1
    http://superconductors.org/Type1.htm

    Many additional elements can be coaxed into a superconductive state with the application of high pressure. For example, lithium is the Type 1 element with the highest Tc. But, it requires compression pressures of 300,000 atmospheres to become superconductive and 480,000 atmospheres to reach a Tc of 20 K. The above list is for elements at normal (ambient) atmospheric pressure. See the periodic table below for all known elemental superconductors
    Type II
    Type II superconductors are, for the most part, comprised of metallic compounds and alloys. This class of superconductors generally has a much higher critical temperature than those in Type I. They achieve a higher critical temperature than Type 1 superconductors by a mechanism that is still not completely understood. It is believed that it relates to the planar layering within the crystalline structure. The highest critical temperature reached is currently 138 K. Debates still arise as to whether or not an upper limit exists for a critical temperature to be found.
    Title Page

    Introduction to Superconductors

    Basic Conditions

    The Resistance in a Superconductor
    ... Bibliography

    14. Superconductors | Define Superconductors At Dictionary.com
    –noun Physics . the phenomenon of almost perfect conductivity shown by certain substances at temperatures approaching absolute zero. The recent discovery of materials that
    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/superconductors

    15. Superconductors
    Tutorial on superconductors as alternative energy sources. superconductors. superconductors are materials which exhibit no electrical resistance below a certain temperature defined
    http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/materials-science/alternative-energy-materials/magne

    16. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Superconductors
    An overview of the history, applications and science of superconductivity, including the Meissner effect, BCS theory, Type 1 and Type 2 superconductors and hightemperature
    http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/gallery/superconductors.html

    17. Superconductors | GreenOptimistic.com
    Since their discovery in late 1980s, superconductors were thought to revolutionize everything that had an electric current flowing, but allowing it to pass through more easily, and
    http://www.greenoptimistic.com/category/superconductors/

    18. Superconductivity
    Type I superconductors are sometimes called soft superconductors while the Type II are hard , maintaining the superconducting state to higher temperatures and magnetic fields.
    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/scond.html

    19. Superconductors - LeonardoWiki
    Useful for niche applications but no magic bullet. In times of climate change and energy security challenges, the need to minimize energy losses is greater than ever.
    http://www.leonardo-wiki.org/index.php/Superconductors
    Superconductors
    From LeonardoWiki
    Jump to: navigation search Superconductors in the electric power system
    Applications and future potential
    Contents
    Useful for niche applications but no magic bullet
    In times of climate change and energy security challenges, the need to minimize energy losses is greater than ever. In this context, the idea of a ‘superconducting’ power cable with virtually no energy losses sounds too good to be true. But today, the market for superconducting technology is booming, facilitating totally new applications. But as often in nature, it comes with a price: it appears only at temperatures of about –150°C (123 Kelvin). The energy that is needed to cool down the power cable wipes out part – if not all – of the energy that is saved by minimising the losses in the conductor. Nevertheless, superconductivity is of great use in several technology niches. Superconductors allow for building very strong magnets of relatively small size due to their ability to carrying very high currents in a small cross section. This principle has applications in a wide variety of domains, from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the medical sector to particle accelerators for research in quantum physics.

    20. Superconductors.fr -- LE Site De La Supraconductivit, Des Supraconducteurs Et D
    La supraconductivit et les supraconducteurs l historique, les principes fondamentaux et les th ories, les applications.
    http://superconductors.free.fr
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    Bienvenue sur Superconductors, le site entirement consacr la supraconductivit ainsi que ses applications l'essentiel de ce qu'il faut savoir sur ce passionnant sujet qu'est News scientifiques

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