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         Relativity:     more books (100)
  1. The Einstein Theory of Relativity: A Trip to the Fourth Dimension by Lillian R. Lieber, 2008-10-01
  2. General Theory of Relativity by P. A.M. Dirac, 1996-01-08
  3. Relativity and Common Sense by Hermann Bondi, 1980-07-01
  4. It's About Time: Understanding Einstein's Relativity by N. David Mermin, 2009-07-06
  5. The Mathematical Theory of Relativity by Arthur Stanley Eddington, 2010-01-14
  6. Ontological Relativity by W. V. Quine, 1977-04-15
  7. The Geometry of Spacetime: An Introduction to Special and General Relativity (Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics) by James J. Callahan, 2010-11-02
  8. Introduction to General Relativity by John Dirk Walecka, 2007-05-16
  9. Gravity: An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity by James B. Hartle, 2003-01-05
  10. Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity by Sean Carroll, 2003-09-28
  11. Works of Albert Einstein: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Relativity: The Special and General Theory, Sidelights on Relativity, Dialog about Objections ... the Theory of Relativity & more (mobi) by Albert Einstein, 2009-12-15
  12. Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity by Joel Franklin, 2010-08-01
  13. The Special Theory of Relativity (Routledge Classics) by David Bohm, 2006-09-15
  14. What Is Relativity? by L. D. Landau, G. B. Rumer, 2003-01-23

41. Unit 56
Self-tutorial with short essays, questions and answers.
Written for students in the USC Self-Paced Astronomy Courses Learning Objectives and References are in the Study Guide. Sample Questions are on the web at
ESSAY The Special Theory of Relativity
by J. L. Safko
A. Principle of Relativity,
Newton's theory of gravity, first studied in Unit 3, is intimately related to his concept of space and time. He considered space and time to be absolute concepts which existed independently of the material universe. Space was a stage in which the planets and stars existed. As time passed, the objects in the material universe evolved against the fixed background of space. Newton also formalized the concept of the inertial frame (or inertial coordinate system). A coordinate system (or coordinate frame) is a grid of rods and clocks at rest with respect to each other that spans a region of space. A simplified drawing of a coordinate system is shown in Fig. 56-1. Using this coordinate system we can describe events. Events are things that can be located at a particular place in space and that occur at a given time. The flashbulb firing on your camera would be an example of an event. The measurement of an event is determining the position and time of an event. We also term this measuring the coordinates of an event. An inertial frame (or an inertial coordinate frame) is a coordinate system in which Newton's first law holds. Newton's first law, as given in Unit 3, is that in the absence of outside forces any body moves with constant velocity. Any coordinate system moving with constant velocity with respect to an inertial system is also an inertial system. These inertial frames were assumed by Newton to be of infinite extent. They covered the entire universe. According to Newton, once you know any inertial frame, you know them all, since each differs from another by a constant velocity.

42. NOVA | Einstein's Big Idea | Relativity (Lightman Essay) | PBS
Physicist and science writer Alan Lightman describes how Einstein's general theory of relativity laid the foundation for cosmology.
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Relativity and the Cosmos
by Alan Lightman
Einstein's Big Idea homepage In November of 1919, at the age of 40, Albert Einstein became an overnight celebrity, thanks to a solar eclipse. An experiment had confirmed that light rays from distant stars were deflected by the gravity of the sun in just the amount he had predicted in his theory of gravity, general relativity. General relativity was the first major new theory of gravity since Isaac Newton's more than 250 years earlier. Einstein became a hero, and the myth-building began. Headlines appeared in newspapers all over the world. On November 8, 1919, for example, the London Times had an article headlined: "The Revolution In Science/Einstein Versus Newton." Two days later, The New York Times ' headlines read: "Lights All Askew In The Heavens/Men Of Science More Or Less Agog Over Results Of Eclipse Observations/Einstein Theory Triumphs." The planet was exhausted from World War I, eager for some sign of humankind's nobility, and suddenly here was a modest scientific genius, seemingly interested only in pure intellectual pursuits.
The essence of gravity
What was general relativity? Einstein's earlier theory of time and space, special relativity, proposed that distance and time are not absolute. The ticking rate of a clock depends on the motion of the observer of that clock; likewise for the length of a "yardstick." Published in 1915, general relativity proposed that gravity, as well as motion, can affect the intervals of time and of space. The key idea of general relativity, called the equivalence principle, is that gravity pulling in one direction is completely equivalent to an acceleration in the opposite direction. A car accelerating forwards feels just like sideways gravity pushing you back against your seat. An elevator accelerating upwards feels just like gravity pushing you into the floor.

43. Relativity (Kinematics)
Chapter of a classical mechanics text describes spatiotemporal effects. Includes problems and solutions.

44. Living Reviews In Relativity
Living Reviews in relativity is a peerrefereed, solely online physics journal publishing invited reviews covering all areas of relativity research. Reviews are kept up to date by
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Living Reviews in Relativity
  • Bernard F. Schutz, Robert Beig, Chris Isham, Bala Iyer, Renate Loll, Donald Marolf, Jorge Pullin, Mukund Rangamani, Edward Seidel, Joachim Wambsganss, Clifford Will latest publication:
14 October 2010 (original article):
J. Fernando Barbero G.
"Quantization of Midisuperspace Models"
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45. History Of Special Relativity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Wikipedia article on the genesis and development of special relativity and its precursors.
History of special relativity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search "History of relativity" redirects here. For the history of general relativity, see history of general relativity Wikisource has original works on the topic: Historical Papers on Relativity The history of special relativity consists of many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert Michelson Hendrik Lorentz Henri Poincaré and others. It culminated in the theory of special relativity proposed by Albert Einstein , and subsequent work of Max Planck Hermann Minkowski and others.
edit Introduction
Although Isaac Newton based his theory on absolute space and time, he also adhered to the principle of relativity of Galileo Galilei . This stated that all observers who move uniformly relative to each other are equal and no absolute state of motion can be attributed to any observer. During the 19th century the aether theory was widely accepted, mostly in the form given by James Clerk Maxwell . According to Maxwell all optical and electrical phenomena propagate in a medium. Thus it seemed possible to determine

46. Relativity Capital LLC
relativity Capital LLC provides private equity capital to middlemarket companies.
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Relativity Capital ("Relativity") provides private equity capital to companies throughout all stages of the business cycle. We target quality investments in both healthy and distressed middle – market companies, predominantly located in North America. Relativity is supported by a Strategic Advisory Board comprised of individuals with significant management and operational experience. Our key investment initiative is to drive operational excellence in our portfolio companies while developing robust relationships with management teams.

47. Relativity Priority Dispute - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Wikipedia article about the various contributors to special and general relativity, and about the contentious questions of who has priority on the different ideas and concepts involved, and in how far Einstein was influenced by his contemporaries and predecessors.
Relativity priority dispute
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards Please improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (July 2009) An editor has expressed a concern that this article lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, controversies or matters relative to the article subject as a whole. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (July 2009) Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that either contained no formal references to previous literature, or referred only to a small number of his predecessors for fundamental results on which he based his theories, most notably to the work of Hendrik Lorentz for special relativity, and to the work of Gauss Riemann , and Mach for general relativity. Subsequently claims have been put forward about both theories, asserting that they were formulated, either wholly or in part, by others before Einstein. At issue is the extent to which Einstein and various other individuals should be credited for the formulation of these theories, based on priority considerations.

48. Relativity Chapter 1: The Speed Of Light
relativity Introduction. relativity is a word that is used in a lot of different contexts to mean a lot of different things; however, in common usage, if you say relativity
Relativity is a word that is used in a lot of different contexts to mean a lot of different things; however, in common usage, if you say "relativity," people think "Einstein." Relativity is the idea that the laws of the universe are the same no matter what direction you are facing, no matter where you are standing, no matter how fast you are moving. Now, to say the laws of the universe are the same does not mean everything looks the same. A person standing in the Mojave desert sees very different things than an astronaut floating in space, or a diver 300 feet under water. But, they all see the same laws of physics and mathematics. Gravity always pulls you towards heavy objects. Objects in motion tend to stay in motion, unless something pushes on them. Electricity can give you a big shock. Relativity is nearly always presented as a theory about the speed of light and black holes. While this is technically correct, I will take a broader view: I see relativity as the culmination of a 2400 year intellectual struggle to identify and understand mankind's place in the universe. In my opinion, by far the most important consequences of relativity are not the ability of physicists to calculate an extra decimal place or two, but rather the changes in philosophy, our understanding of religion and our relationship to Creation. For most of western history, people have had their beliefs shaped by our experience on the Earth: the Earth seems to us to be enormously large and completely immovable. We jump up and down, throw large rocks, watch the tides come and go, but the Earth never seems to move. Historically, the stars were thought to be small objects, perhaps painted on a backdrop, but in any case visibly orbiting around the center of the universe, the Earth. Similarly the Sun and the Moon also orbited around the Earth. This universe was thought to be fixed and unchanging, as is only appropriate for a perfect creation of a perfect God. It was only natural for mankind's original idea to be that the Earth was immobile and at the center of this perfect universe.

49. History Of General Relativity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Wikipedia article on the development of relativity. Includes sections about observational tests and alternative theories.
History of general relativity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search For the history of special relativity, see history of special relativity General relativity Einstein field equations Introduction ...
Fundamental concepts Special relativity
Equivalence principle

World line
Riemannian geometry Phenomena Kepler problem Lenses Waves
Black hole
Equations Linearized Gravity
Post-Newtonian formalism

Einstein field equations

Friedmann equations
BSSN formalism
Advanced theories Kaluza–Klein
Quantum gravity
Solutions Schwarzschild ... pp-wave Scientists Einstein Minkowski Eddington Lemaître ... e

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51. Is The Special Theory Of Relativity Wrong?
Presents a brief theoretical proof that would strongly suggest that the special theory of relativity is fundamentally flawed ; by Greg Alexander.
Is the Special Theory of Relativity Wrong?
Author: Greg Alexander
Date: 17 Sept 2003
These days it would appear that the Special Theory of Relativity was beyond any form of doubt however I have a theoretical proof that would strongly suggest that the theory is fundamentally flawed. Indeed the proof is so straight forward it is a wonder so many supposedly acute minds have previously overlooked it. The proof runs as follows :
The origin of this scientific red herring lies with the famous (though some may perhaps argue infamous) Michelson-Morley experiment. It was conducted by the two Americans whom it was named after in 1887 in order to prove or disprove the existence of aether, the enigmatic substance thought to be contained in a vacuum upon which a light wave was able to move upon. The apparatus consisted of two beams of light meeting at right angles at an interferometer. If the Earths speed effected either of the velocities of the light beams then the interference pattern obtained would change. However it was found that the speed of the Earth about the Sun did not appear to effect the interference pattern in any way and it was upon this observation that Einstein based his Special Theory of Relativity.
However just the briefest look at the exact set-up of the apparatus used by Michelson and Morley clearly reveals that the experiment could never have worked anyway. Indeed the logic supporting it is so flawed it is a wonder that no-one appears to have ever noticed. The two light beams which meet at the interferometer first travel away from it and at equal distances are reflected back again to the same half-silvered glass it started from. However because each light beam exactly doubles back on itself each time, it is obvious what the light beam would have gained as a result of the Earths velocity in one direction, it would exactly lose on the way back again in the opposite direction, and vice versa. Indeed the experiment would never have proved or disproved the existence of the aether either.

52. Anti Relativity : The Theory Of Anti Relativity
Website presenting what the author claims to be experimental evidence against relativity, as well as more philosophical arguments and proposed explanations of the various experimental effects in terms of an ether theory. Includes a discussion board.
Some of you who have just arrived at this site already have a self-satisfied smirk of superiority. Many of you are at least amused and find the topic absurd. I would like to take this opportunity to point that fact out to you. Take a moment to objectively appraise your current pre-conceived notions about the topic and the strength of your convictions in those same notions. What is the foundation of your belief? Have you personally examined the points and counter-points of the argument thoroughly and open-mindedly with logic and the scientific method or do you instead rely upon your betters to appraise the truthfulness of your beliefs? Are you so completely convinced of your opinion, that before even examining new evidence, you will immediately discard the heretical data without thorough consideration? If the answer is yes, (and for many it is) then you must admit you have built your belief system using exactly the same method as any religious zealot. Though this zealotry will not culminate in terrorist acts, the results of an unexamined belief system pervading the scientific community could be devastating. If you wish to distance yourself from that appraisal, then I will provide for you here, a resource to examine the evidence against relativity. You should note that the very top link on the left is the most important; it is the experimental evidence for and against relativity. I will examine a fair number of the experiments usually equated with proving relativity, as well as experimental data disproving relativity. I will be providing the Anti-Relativity point of view for all the evidence as a balance to the ubiquitous nature of the Pro-Relativity viewpoint; however, if I have structured that section of this site properly, and you are indeed a non-biased reader, you will have significant reason to openly examine other portions of this site.

53. Prague Relativity Group Homepage
Contains a brief history of relativity in Prague, as well as information about members, seminars and publications.

54. Relativity Media LLC: Ryan Kavanaugh, CEO: Entertainment Creation, Movie Financi
relativity Media, LLC, led by CEO Ryan Kavanaugh, is a media and entertainment company which focuses on creating, financing and distributing first class, studio quality
Relativity Media, LLC: Ryan Kavanaugh CEO
Relativity Media, LLC , founded by CEO Ryan Kavanaugh To date, Ryan Kanvanaugh's Relativity has committed to, produced and/or financed more than 200 studio-quality motion pictures through 2014. Released films have accumulated more than $11.6 billion in worldwide box office revenue. Relativity's recent films include: Zombieland, Couples Retreat, The Ugly Truth, Public Enemies, Fast and the Furious and Mall Cop. Upcoming films for Relativity include: Brothers, The Spy Next Door, MacGruber, Season of the Witch, Dear John, Nine and Fighter. Twenty-eight of the company's films have opened at #1 at the box office. Relativity films have earned 35 Oscar nominations, including nods for: Frost/Nixon, Atonement, American Gangster, and 3:10 To Yuma. Forty of RML's films have each generated over $100 million in worldwide box office receipts. About Relativity Media CEO Ryan Kavanaugh Biography Film TV Digital ... Contact
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Handling the licensing of soundtrack distribution rights for major studio films, and distributing the soundtracks through its distribution agreement with Warner Bros., Relativity Music also has plans to release 15-20 soundtracks per year, including

55. RELATIVITY: Bookmarks
Large collection of relativity-related links by Rob Salgado (Syracuse University). Warning page hasn t been updated since 2000, and quite a number of links are now broken.
RELATIVITY: bookmarks
This is a collection of MUCH TOO MANY bookmarks that I don't really have time to update or maintain. Many links are probably dead. I do not necessarily endorse the content of any of these bookmarked sites.
(new) Relativity
Einstein Archives Online
FJE Enterprises Home Page
Modern Physics (Wijekumar - IUP)
Fields and Spacetime (Schumacher - Kenyon) ...
Hisaaki Shinkai's Links
United States
NSF Gravitational Physics
NRC Committee on Gravitational Physics
Grand Challenge Alliance Directory (via NCSA)
Austin College
Boston U. (Einstein Papers Project)
Brandeis U.
Caltech TAPIR (Theoretical Astrophysics and Relativity) ...
Saint Louis U. (Math)
Syracuse U.
Syracuse U. / NPAC
Texas AM (Math-Phy)
Truman State U. (Math) ...
Washington U. - St. Louis
U. Alberta - CIAR Cosmology
U. British Columbia
U. Calgary (Hobill)
U. Guelph ...
U. Windsor
Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP - Mexico)
UNAM-ICN (Mexico)
U. Nacional de Cordoba
UERJ (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
U. Buenos Aires (Quantum Theory and Gravitation)
Instituto de Fisica (Montevideo, Uruguay)
EUROPE / United Kingdom
U. Vienna

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57. Jim Doyle S Special Relativity Pages
A growing collection of pages on special relativity, including Special relativity in under 15 Minutes!
Albert Einstein published his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905. This theory has had a major impact on all our lives, although how and why is not always obvious. The purpose of these web pages is to try to relate the theory in a clear, concise and understandable way, with the mathematics and technicalities kept mostly to one side. While relativity has a reputation for being difficult much of it can be understood by anyone. NEW! The Einstein was Wrong!!! pages...
[Pages for crackpots. Opens in new window.] Guides and Summaries: Special Relativity Detailed Pages:

58. BrainPOP | Science | Learn About Relativity
Animated Science, Health, Technology, Math, Social Studies, Arts Music and English movies, quizzes, activity pages and school homework help for K12 kids, aligned with state

How cool is our BrainPOP movie on relativity? Well, we think it’s pretty groovy, but of course it’s all relative! In the movie, Tim and Moby lay out the basics of Albert Einstein’s brilliant discoveries. The dynamic duo blast off in a spaceship to demonstrate how time isn’t as unchanging as you might think. You’ll also discover the two different types of relativity, special and general, and how each describes different elements of the universe. Plus, you’ll learn how relativity relates gravity to acceleration and why massive objects can bend the fabric space and time. Most importantly, you’ll find out the meaning of that crazy equation, E=mc2! Einstein would be so proud!
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59. University Lectures On Special Relativity
Lecture notes on Special relativity, prepared by J. D. Cresser, Department of Physics, Macquarie University. 44 pages.

No one has paid attention yet, but a wellrespected physics journal just published an article whose conclusion, if generally accepted, will undermine the foundations of modern
Physics Letters A (December 21, 1998), the article claims that the speed with which the force of gravity propagates must be at least twenty billion times faster than the speed of light. This would contradict the Special Theory of Relativity of 1905, which asserts that nothing can go faster than light. This claim about the special status of the speed of light has become part of the world view of educated laymen in the twentieth century. NOTE: The Speed of Gravity - What the Experiments Say TAS , August 1993, and Correspondence, TAS , October 1993). The present article introduces new people and arguments. The subject is important because if Special Relativity is supplanted, much of twentieth-century physics, including quantum theory, will have to be reconsidered in that light. The article in Physics Letters A was written by Tom Van Flandern, a research associate in the physics department at the University of Maryland. He also publishes Meta Research Bulletin Science at the Crossroads (1972), contradicting the first. Scientific journals, especially Nature An editor of Physics Letters A So maybe there is something wrong with Special Relativity after all. In

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