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         Finite Differences:     more books (100)
  1. Conservative Finite Difference Methods on General Grids (Symbolic and Numeric Computation Series)
  2. A treatise on differential equations, and on the calculus of finite differences by J 1803-1887 Hymers, 2010-07-30
  3. Heat-Transfer Calculations by Finite Differences (International Textbooks in Mechanical Engineering) by George Merrick Dusinberre, 1961
  4. Nonstandard Finite Difference Models of Differential Equations by Ronald E. Mickens, 1994-02
  5. An introduction to the differential calculus by means of finite differences by Roberdeau Buchanan, 2010-08-02
  6. Elements of Finite Differences: Also Solutions to Questions Set for Part I of the Examinationsof the Institute of Actuaries [ 1915 ] by Joseph Burn, 2009-08-10
  7. Numerical Calculus: Approximations, Interpolation, Finite Differences, Numerical Integration, and Curve Fitting by William Edmund Milne, 1949-12
  8. Microcomputer Modelling by Finite Differences (Computer Science Series) by Gordon Reece, 1986-10-27
  9. Notes On Finite Differences: For The Use Of Students Of The Institute Of Actuaries (1885) by A. W. Sunderland, 2010-09-10
  10. Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 137: Dogma of the Continuum and the Calculus of Finite Differences in Quantum Physics by Beate Meffert, Henning Harmuth, 2005-12-07
  11. Elements of Finite Differences: Also Solutions to Questions Set for ... the Examinations of the Institute of Actuaries by Joseph Burn, 2010-01-10
  12. A two-dimensional, finite-difference model of the high plains aquifer in southern South Dakota by Kenneth E. Kolm, 1983-01-01
  13. The Calculus of Finite Differences by L.M. Thomson - Milne, 1951
  14. Introduction to the Calculus of Finite Differences. by C.H. Richardson, 1963

41. Finite Differences
Point Group Symmetry Up Vibrational Spectra Previous Prerequisites Contents Index Finite Differences The simplest way to calculate the vibrational spectrum is by finite
Next: Point Group Symmetry Up: Vibrational Spectra Previous: Prerequisites Contents Index
Finite Differences
The simplest way to calculate the vibrational spectrum is by finite differences via the keyword VIBRATIONAL ANALYSIS . This type of calculation supports that largest variety of system setups. The corresponding section can look like this. The flag GAUSS tells CPMD to produce a fake Gaussian type output file, VIB1.log , which can be used for visualization with programs like Molden, Molekel, or gOpenMol. After the initial wavefunction optimization (which will take only one step since we start here from an already optimization wavefunction), every atom is displaced in positive and negative x-, y-, and z-direction by a small distance and the gradient computed. At the end the resulting dynamical matrix is diagonalized and the resulting vibrational spectrum in harmonic approximation is computed. Unless a very tight geometry optimization was performed, a few very low frequency modes will appear. Since in our case we didn't optimize, these frequencies are fairly large, and there are several imaginary (=negative) frequencies as indication of the geometry not being fully optimized. For higher accuracy of the results a **************************************************************** HARMONIC FREQUENCIES [cm**-1]: -209.8467 -102.0840 -58.0525 -37.5732 42.6296 214.9993 1581.2523 3712.7275 3821.3442 PURIFICATION OF DYNAMICAL MATRIX **************************************************************** HARMONIC FREQUENCIES [cm**-1]: -0.0001 -0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 1621.5287 3721.6537 3814.9509

42. Epic Consulting Services, A Division Of Baker Hughes Canada Company
Worldwide reservoir engineering and characterization. Both finite difference and streamline simulation.

43. Finite Difference -- From Wolfram MathWorld
Spiegel, M. Calculus of Finite Differences and Differential Equations. New York McGrawHill, 1971. Stirling, J. Methodus differentialis, sive tractatus de summation et
Applied Mathematics

Calculus and Analysis

Discrete Mathematics
... Interactive Demonstrations
Finite Difference The finite difference is the discrete analog of the derivative . The finite forward difference of a function is defined as and the finite backward difference as The forward finite difference is implemented in Mathematica as DifferenceDelta f i If the values are tabulated at spacings , then the notation is used. The th forward difference would then be written as , and similarly, the th backward difference as However, when is viewed as a discretization of the continuous function , then the finite difference is sometimes written where denotes convolution and is the odd impulse pair . The finite difference operator can therefore be written An th power has a constant th finite difference. For example, take and make a difference table The column is the constant 6. Finite difference formulas can be very useful for extrapolating a finite amount of data in an attempt to find the general term. Specifically, if a function is known at only a few discrete values , 1, 2, ... and it is desired to determine the analytical form of

44. Finite Differences In Inhomogeneous Media
Finite Differences in Inhomogeneous Media Atomic, Solid State, Comp. Physics discussion

A library for the direct solution of finite difference approximations to two-dimensional Helmholz equations. Includes documentation and source code.
FISHPAK is a free, portable library for the direct solution of finite difference approximations to two dimensional Helmholz equations in Cartesian, polar, cylindrical, interior spherical coordinates, and surface spherical coordinates, with various combinations of periodicity, normal derivative, or solution of the boundaries of a regular domain. Versions of these two dimensional codes are provided for both standard and staggered grids. Additionally, FISHPAK provides two routines for solving more general two dimensional separable elliptic equations, and one routine for solving a system of linear equations resulting from the discretization of a three dimensional separable elliptic equation. Recommendation: Use FISHPAK if your application requires direct solvers and free software. Otherwise use CRAYFISH . If you need an iterative solver, consider using MUDPACK
  • Usage documentation is available in SCD's FISHPAK source directory , as comment lines in the Fortran source files. Overview documentation is available in the README file in the FISHPAK source directory.
  • You may obtain Fortran source code from the FISHPAK source directory.

46. Finite Difference Method - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
One way to numerically solve this equation is to approximate all the derivatives by finite differences. We partition the domain in space using a mesh x 0, , x J and in time using a
Finite difference method
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ┬а┬а(Redirected from Finite Difference Method Jump to: navigation search Not to be confused with "finite difference method based on variation principle" , the first name of finite element method In mathematics finite-difference methods are numerical methods for approximating the solutions to differential equations using finite difference equations to approximate derivatives.
edit Intuitive derivation
Finite-difference methods approximate the solutions to differential equations by replacing derivative expressions with approximately equivalent difference quotients . That is, because the first derivative of a function f is, by definition, then a reasonable approximation for that derivative would be to take for some small value of h. In fact, this is the forward difference equation for the first derivative. Using this and similar formulae to replace derivative expressions in differential equations, one can approximate their solutions without the need for calculus.
edit Derivation from Taylor's polynomial
Assuming the function whose derivatives are to be approximated is properly-behaved, by

47. Mathematical Modeling тАУ Finite Differences
Mathematical Modeling тАУ Finite Differences . Section 2.2 . Charles Babbage (England, 1821) created a forerunner of the computer called the Difference Engine. Finite Differences.ppt

48. Meep - AbInitio
A free finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation software package developed at MIT to model electromagnetic systems, along with the MPB eigenmode package.
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From AbInitio
Jump to: navigation search Meep (or MEEP ) is a free finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation software package developed at MIT to model electromagnetic systems, along with our MPB eigenmode package. Its features include: Meep Download Release notes FAQ Meep manual ... Acknowledgements
  • Free software under the GNU GPL Simulation in , and cylindrical coordinates. Distributed memory parallelism on any system supporting the MPI standard. Portable to any Unix-like system ( GNU/Linux is fine). Arbitrary anisotropic dispersive nonlinear conductivities PML absorbing boundaries and/or perfect conductor and/or Bloch-periodic boundary conditions. Exploitation of symmetries Complete scriptability Scheme scripting front-end (as in libctl and MPB ), or callable as a C++ library; a Python interface is also available. Field output in the standard scientific data format, supported by many visualization tools. Arbitrary material and source distributions. Field analyses including flux spectra, frequency extraction, and energy integrals; completely programmable. Multi-parameter optimization, root-finding, integration, etcetera (via

49. Finite Difference
I suppose I should find the 3rd degree polynomial (y=ax 3 +bx 2 +cx+d) that fits the above data. There are numerous methods. I will just add and subtract multiples of equations
Return to my Mathematics pages
Go to my home page
Finite Difference
, then click here for the alternative Finite Difference page Let's say that you have some unknown function of x, y=f(x), which gives these values: x=0, y=5
x=1, y=0
x=2, y=1
x=3, y=20
x=4, y=69
x=5, y=160
x=6, y=305 And you would like to know which function fits those values. One possibility is an n-degree polynomial: y=ax +bx +cx +dx +ex +fx+g, for example. You could actually plug the above x and y values into this equation. Then you would have seven linear equations (like 1=64a+32b+16c+8d+4e+2f+g) with seven unknowns. And there are a few fairly easy ways to solve them, to get a, b, c... A valuable short-cut is called the Finite Difference method. We take the numbers in the table, and find their differences (between consecutive elements), then we find the differences between the differences, etc: x y diff1 diff2 diff3 diff4 5 -5 1 6 1 12 2 1 18 19 12 3 20 30 49 12 4 69 42 91 12 5 160 54 145 6 305 It can be shown that for an n-degree polynomial, the nth difference is constant (and the (n+1)th difference is 0). So our function is

50. Levenberg-Marquardt In C/C++
Package containing double and single precision flavors of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Included are versions with analytic and finite difference approximated jacobians. Open source, GPL

51. Finite Differences Tutorial
A Limited Tutorial on Using Finite Differences in Soil Physics Problems written by Donald L. Baker reviewed by H. Don Scott. home This and the soil physics tutorial section
A Limited Tutorial on Using
Finite Differences in Soil Physics Problems
written by Donald L. Baker
reviewed by H. Don Scott
home This and the soil physics tutorial section have been the most popular sections on this site.
This is a brief and limited tutorial in the use of finite difference methods to solve problems in soil physics. It is meant for students at the graduate and undergraduate level who have at least some understanding of ordinary and partial differential equations. After an explanation of how to use finite differences in cook-book fashion, the equations, computer code and graphic results are given for three examples: heat flow, infiltration and redistribution, and contaminant transport in a steady-state flow field.
Often, for problems of heat flow, or unsaturated water flow or contaminant transport in soil, there may be no analytic solutions or neat equations describing the result. In such cases, we use numerical methods on a computer. Perhaps the simplest of the numerical methods to understand and to program are finite differences, derived from Taylor series expansions (DuChateau and Zachmann, 1989). Some methods are so simple, they can even be done in a spreadsheet. But in the interests of accuracy, we will only discuss the methods that require some ability to program in a computer language such as C, BASIC or FORTRAN. The examples here given will be in FORTRAN, but can be converted to other languages. Because they are often confusing to the neophyte, we will not discuss Taylor series derivations. Finite differences can be explained and used in cook-book manner, if one is careful. If the reader has no other experience in these methods, he or she should keep in mind that this is a limited discussion. Such issues as stability, convergence, iteration methods, implicitness, discretization errors and non-Darcian flow will not be covered. So the reader should be careful to understand that a great deal more study is necessary to use these methods successfully in many cases. This is only a brief synopsis.

52. Migration By Finite Differences
WAVEEXTRAPOLATION EQUATIONS Up Table of Contents Migration by finite differences In the last chapter we learned how to extrapolate wavefields down into the earth.
Migration by finite differences
In the last chapter we learned how to extrapolate wavefields down into the earth. The process proceeded simply, since it is just a multiplication in the frequency domain by .Finite-difference techniques will be seen to be complicated. They will involve new approximations and new pitfalls. Why should we trouble ourselves to learn them? To begin with, many people find finite-difference methods more comprehensible. In ( t x z )-space, there are no complex numbers, no complex exponentials, and no ``magic'' box called FFT. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in ordinary frequency filtering. Frequency filtering can be done as a product in the frequency domain or a convolution in the time domain. With wave extrapolation there are products in both the temporal frequency -domain and the spatial frequency k x -domain. The new ingredient is the two-dimensional -space, which replaces the old one-dimensional -space. Our question, why bother with finite differences?, is a two-dimensional form of an old question: After the discovery of the fast Fourier transform, why should anyone bother with time-domain filtering operations? Our question will be asked many times and under many circumstances. Later we will have the axis of offset between the shot and geophone and the axis of midpoints between them. There again we will need to choose whether to work on these axes with finite differences or to use Fourier transformation. It is not an all-or-nothing proposition: for each axis separately either Fourier transform or convolution (finite difference) must be chosen.

53. Package FD
Fortran 77 package by Jiri Zahradnik for 2-D P-SV elastic second-order finite differences.
Fortran 77 package FD version 5.50
By Jiri Zahradnik
Department of Geophysics, Charles University Prague
V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Praha 8, Czech Republic
Tel.: +420-2-21912546, Fax: +420-2-21912555
E-mail: Data input and output modified by Vaclav Bucha and Ludek Klimes
Department of Geophysics, Charles University Prague
Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha 2, Czech Republic
E-mails: Package FD contains programs for 2-D P-SV elastic second-order finite differences. See file fdver.htm for the list of released versions and changes made in this version. Package FD employs package FORMS for unified memory management and unified compilation All Fortran 77 source code and include files of the FD package are assumed to be located in a single directory together with all source code and include files of the FORMS and MODEL packages when being compiled and linked. The files with main programs contain, at their ends, Fortran 90 INCLUDE command for all subroutine files required. In this way, each program may simply be compiled and linked as a single file. All filenames are assumed to be expressed in lowercase.

54. Finite Difference: Definition From
Boole, George, A Treatise On The Calculus of Finite Differences, 2 nd ed., Macmillan and Company, 1872. See also Dover edition 1960. Levy, H.; Lessman, F. (1992).

55. Theory Of Finite Differences
Theory of Finite Differences Given a sequence that follows a distinctive pattern (the pattern does not have to be known, in fact, the pattern, or formula, is what we are
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Collection of Fortran subprograms which utilize cyclic reduction to directly solve second- and fourth-order finite difference approximations to separable elliptic PDEs in a variety of forms.
Efficient FORTRAN Subprograms for the Solution of Separable Elliptic Partial Differential Equations
John Adams
Paul Swarztrauber

Roland Sweet A modernization of FISHPACK 4.0 is available at Details of the changes FISHPACK is incompatible with FISHPACK90. (figure provided by Jacque Marshall) This document consists of three parts:
  • FISHPACK Introduction FISHPACK Solver Description Obtaining FISHPACK Software
  • FISHPACK Introduction
    FISHPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subprograms that use cyclic reduction to directly solve second- and fourth-order finite difference approximations to separable elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in a variety of forms. (See MUDPACK for software that uses multigrid iterative techniques to approximate separable and nonseparable elliptic PDEs). FISHPACK includes solvers for the Helmholtz equation in Cartesian, Polar, Cylindrical, and Spherical coordinates as well as solvers for more general separable elliptic equations. Provisions are made to handle coordinate-system-induced singularities (e.g., at the origin r=0 in cylindrical coordinates and at the poles in spherical coordinates). Solutions obtained in the least-squares sense are computed for singular problems.
    FISHPACK Solver Description
    The following table summarizes the contents of FISHPACK. Descriptions can be obtained by clicking on the solver name. Descriptions of the PDEs solved are also included after the table.

    57. Finite Differences тАФ The Endeavour
    If f(x) is a function on integers, the forward difference operator is defined by. For example, say f(x) = x 2. The forward difference of the sequence of squares 1, 4, 9, 16
    The Endeavour The blog of John D. Cook
    Finite differences
    by John on February 1, 2009 If f(x) is a function on integers, the forward difference operator is defined by For example, say f(x) = x There are many identities for the forward difference operator that resemble analogous formulas for derivatives. For example, the forward difference operator has its own product rule, quotient rule, etc. These rules are called the calculus of finite differences. The finite results are often much easier to prove than their continuous counterparts. integration by parts for integrals. This is quite useful technique and I intend to write a separate post on it. The product rule for forward differences looks a little odd: The left hand side is symmetric in f and g though the right side is not. There is also a symmetric version: Here is the quotient rule for forward differences. One of the first things you learn in calculus is how to take the derivative of powers of x. If f(x) = x n n-1 . There is an analogous formula in the calculus of finite differences, but with a different kind of power of x. For positive integers n, define the n th falling power of x by Then Falling powers can be generalized to non-integer exponents by defining The formula for finite difference of falling powers given above remains valid when using the more general definition of falling powers. Falling powers arise in many areas: generating functions, power series solutions to differential equations

    58. Note On Nonsymmetric Finite Differences*for MaxwellтАЩs Equations
    Journal of Computational Physics 161, 723727 (2000) doi10.1006/jcph.2000.6524, available online at http//www.idealibrary.comon NOTE Note on Nonsymmetric Finite Differences

    59. Airfoil Software
    Windows software for analyzing airfoils using CFD and analytical techniques. VisualFoil can export an O-Mesh for finite difference/volume CFD analysis. On-line purchase.
    Hanley Innovations
    Airfoil Software Home About Us Telephone Orders:

    Call (352) 687-4466 Newsletter Contact Us Hanley Innovations offers the folloiwng airfoil analysis packages: MultiElement Airfoils - Lite
    MultiElement Airfoils TM Lite Edition ) is a unique software package authored by Patrick Hanley, Ph.D. More information VisualFoil 5.0
    More information
    Computer System Requirements
    The MultiElement Airfoils (Lite) and VisualFoil 5.0 require a PC running Windows XP, Vista or Windows Version 7. It will install and run on both 32 and 64 bit versions of the operating systems. How to Purchase Online Order: Please click here to visit our online store Telephone Your Orders : Please call us at Fax Your Orders Please click here to fax your order (.pdf order form)

    60. Halfbakery: Finite Differences
    Take a word, say word , list the ascii codes of its characters, say {119, 111, 114, 100}. Now take the first difference {8, 3, -14}, followed by {11, -17} and finally {-28}.
    h a l f b a k e r y
    Putting the 'bat' in 'incubator' idea: add search annotate link , view, overview recent by name best ... random meta: news help about links ... report a problem account: browse anonymously, or get an account and write.
    user: pass: register
    Desktop Searching
    Domain Name SMART Search Double Enter ... searching
    finite differences
    Is it already used as an indexing method?
    [vote for

    , Aug 07 2001

    bena berm bevy cake cern chun cise club dali fest fire fish flue gall hers idle keld love mako moyo pahi pail pipi pouf rain rine rist rote royt sell slur Tape temp ting tora vair velo viol waeg waky whop wild word
    I fail to gain insight from this, but maybe you can sell it to a numerologist. jutta , Aug 07 2001
    First Law of Feng Shui: stays in its element. reensure , Aug 13 2001 Forced intelligence is just wrong. The Military , Aug 13 2001 jutta: I think you misplaced your annotation... it obviously belongs in The Greatest Story Ever Told. ;) PotatoStew , Aug 14 2001 I don't think so. The number of possible final differences is very low and there are a lot of four letter words. That technique seems anyway about the same as assigning codes to a limited number of dictionary entries and just using those. If you wanted to avoid losing information, you'd have to represent all the differences as well as the initial value which would, I think, actually take an extra bit per character for any range of codes. You might be able to identify fancy patterns using differences and represent those but then you'll be trying to do something that any ordinary archiving utility already does pretty well.

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