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         General Relativity:     more books (100)
  1. Introducing Einstein's Relativity by R. d'Inverno, 1992-06-18
  2. An Introduction to Relativity by Jayant V. Narlikar, 2010-02-26
  3. General Relativity and John Archibald Wheeler (Astrophysics and Space Science Library)
  4. General relativity; papers in honour of J. L. Synge
  5. Was Einstein Right? 2nd Edition: Putting General Relativity To The Test by Clifford M. Will, 1993-06-02
  6. Relativity: An Introduction to Special and General Relativity by Hans Stephani, 2004-03-29
  7. Relativity: An Introduction to Spacetime Physics by Steve Adams, 1997-09-29
  8. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity: With Modern Applications in Cosmology by Øyvind Grøn, Sigbjorn Hervik, 2010-11-02
  9. Essential Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological (Theoretical and Mathematical Physics) by W. Rindler, 1977-05-05
  10. Introduction to 3+1 Numerical Relativity (International Series of Monographs on Physics) by Miguel Alcubierre, 2008-06-16
  11. General Relativity: A Geometric Approach by Malcolm Ludvigsen, 1999-06-01
  12. The Formation of Black Holes in General Relativity (EMS Monographs in Mathematics) by Demetrios Christodoulou, 2009-01-01
  13. Introduction to 2-Spinors in General Relativity by Peter O'Donnell, 2003-04
  14. An Introduction to General Relativity (London Mathematical Society Student Texts) by L. P. Hughston, K. P. Tod, 1991-01-25

61. General Relativity
This site is intended for students age 14 and up, and for anyone interested in learning about our universe.
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General Relativity
By making precise measurements of gravitational radiation astronomers will be able to test the predictions of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity . Scientists want to know, "Does time really freeze near a black hole ? How stretched-out is spacetime when we get close to a huge mass ?" Strong gravitational wave sources like black holes should be able to give us a picture of the 'knots' in spacetimeareas where gravity has such strong effects that it 'ties' matter in, and the matter cannot escape. Interesting sources like these will enable LISA to map out the area around a black hole, in order to confirm the predictions of General Relativity. Publication Date: August, 2003 Home Imagine Science Special Exhibit Satellites and Data ... Ask an Astrophysicist
If words seem to be missing from the articles, please read this Imagine the Universe! is a service of the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center ( HEASARC ), Dr. Alan Smale (Director), within the

62. Relativistic Velocities
Here is the formula for adding velocities in special relativity when motion occurs in a single direction.
[Physics FAQ] Updated by Terence Tao 1997.
Original by Philip Gibbs 1996.
How Do You Add Velocities in Special Relativity?
Suppose an object A is moving with a velocity v relative to an object B , and B is moving with a velocity u (in the same direction) relative to an object C . What is the velocity of A relative to C v u -> A -> B C w -> In non-relativistic mechanics the velocities are simply added and the answer is that A is moving with a velocity w = u+v relative to C . But in special relativity the velocities must be combined using the formula u + v w = - 1 + uv/c If u and v are both small compared to the speed of light c , then the answer is approximately the same as the non-relativistic theory. In the limit where u is equal to c (because C is a massless particle moving to the left at the speed of light), the sum gives c . This confirms that anything going at the speed of light does so in all reference frames. This change in the velocity addition formula is not due to making measurements without taking into account time it takes light to travel or the Doppler effect. It is what is observed after such effects have been accounted for and is an effect of special relativity which cannot be accounted for with newtonian mechanics.

63. General Relativity - The Physics Hypertextbook
This is a page in The Physics Hypertextbook. It is a work in progress. Discussion introduction. I will not define time, space, place and motion, as being well known to all.

64. Introduction To Special Relativity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia article giving a brief outline of the basic concepts of special relativity (including simple formulas).
Introduction to special relativity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards Please improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (October 2008) This article's citation style may be unclear . The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation footnoting , or external linking (September 2009) This article is intended as an accessible, non-technical introduction to the subject. For the main encyclopedia article, see Special relativity Albert Einstein during a lecture in Vienna in 1921 In physics special relativity is a fundamental theory about space and time , developed by Albert Einstein in 1905 as a modification of Galilean relativity . (See " History of special relativity " for a detailed account and the contributions of Hendrik Lorentz and Henri Poincaré .) It was able to explain some pressing theoretical and experimental issues in the physics of the late 19th century involving light and electrodynamics , such as the failure of the 1887 Michelson–Morley experiment , which aimed to measure differences in the relative speed of light due to the Earth's motion through the hypothetical luminiferous aether , which was then considered to be the medium of propagation of electromagnetic waves such as light.

65. General Relativity
Problems with Newtonian Gravity Newton was fully aware of the conceptual difficulties of his actionat-a-distance theory of gravity. In a letter to Richard Bentley Newton wrote
Introduction to General Relativity
Problems with Newtonian Gravity Newton was fully aware of the conceptual difficulties of his action-at-a-distance theory of gravity. In a letter to Richard Bentley Newton wrote:
    It is inconceivable, that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else, which is not material, operate upon, and affect other matter without mutual contact; as it must do, if gravitation, ...., be essential and inherent in it. And this is one reason, why I desired you would not ascribe innate gravity to me. That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another, at a distance through vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it."
So, clearly, Newton believed that something had to convey gravitational influence from one body to another. When later it became clear that influences travel at finite speeds it was reasonable to suppose this true of gravity also. But Newton's law of gravity did not incorporate the finite travel time of gravitational influences. If right now the sun were to be destroyed by a passing black hole we would not feel the gravitational effects until about 8 minutes had elapsed. Because Newton's law did not include such retardation effects, and permitted violations of special relativity, it was clear that Newton's law had to be an approximation to the correct law of gravity.

66. Lecture Notes On General Relativity
Lecture notes for the course on general relativity held in 1997 at the Physics Institute of NTNU, Trondheim by Petr Hadrava (the lecture notes themselves are Postscript files).
General Relativity
This homepage contains lecture notes on the course of general relativity FX2/H97 read in the fall semester 1997 at the Physics Institute of NTNU, Trondheim. Some parts were added later. It is still under construction (see the dates of last revision of each chapter). Some viewers do not allow to see the PS-files on the screen. However, you can download it (using the 'save'-command) and print it on a PostScript printer.

Special relativity

Basic concepts of general relativity

Spherically symmetric spacetimes

A supplementary text on lower level can be found in lecture notes on cosmology which was read in the fall semester 1999 as a part of another course. To get more information contact, please, the author.
Readers may find interesting also other web-pages on general relativity referred at Hillman's list and Syracuse University list
Petr Hadrava, Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bocni II 1401, CZ 141 31 Praha 4

67. Special Relativity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Online encyclopedia article.
Special relativity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search For history and motivation, see History of special relativity For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity USSR postage stamp dedicated to Albert Einstein Special relativity (SR) (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR ) is the physical theory of measurement in inertial frames of reference proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein (after the considerable and independent contributions of Hendrik Lorentz Henri Poincaré and others) in the paper " On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies It generalizes Galileo's principle of relativity —that all uniform motion is relative, and that there is no absolute and well-defined state of rest (no privileged reference frames )—from mechanics to all the laws of physics , including both the laws of mechanics and of electrodynamics , whatever they may be. Special relativity incorporates the principle that the speed of light is the same for all inertial observers regardless of the state of motion of the source.

68. Early Philosophical Interpretations Of General Relativity (Stanford Encyclopedia
Each of the following philosophical interpretations of general relativity selected certain aspects of that theory for favored recognition. While followers of Mach lauded Einstein's
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Early Philosophical Interpretations of General Relativity
First published Wed Nov 28, 2001; substantive revision Fri Dec 22, 2006
1. The Search for Philosophical Novelty
Extraordinary public clamor greeted an announcement of the joint meeting of the Royal Society of London and the Royal Astronomical Society on the 6th of November, 1919. To within acceptable margin of error, astronomical observations during the solar eclipse the previous May 29 th revealed the displacement of starlight passing near the surface of the sun predicted by Einstein's gravitational theory of curved spacetime. By dint of having "overthrown" such a permanent fixture of the cognitive landscape as Newtonian gravitational theory, the general theory of relativity at once became a principal focus of philosophical interest and inquiry. Although some physicists and philosophers initially opposed it, mostly on non-physical grounds, surveyed here are the principal philosophical interpretations of the theory accepting it as a definite advance in physical knowledge. Even so, these include positions ill-informed as to the mathematics and physics of the theory. Further lack of clarity stemmed from the scientific literati There has been a tendency, not uncommon in the case of a new scientific theory, for every philosopher to interpret the work of Einstein in accordance with his own metaphysical system, and to suggest that the outcome is a great accession of strength to the views which the philosopher in question previously held. This cannot be true in all cases; and it may be hoped that it is true in none. It would be disappointing if so fundamental a change as Einstein has introduced involved no philosophical novelty.

69. General Theory Of Relativity
Also predicted by general relativity is that time runs more slowly in strong gravitational fields. General relativity treats special relativity as a restricted sub
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general theory of relativity
Albert Einstein's theory of gravity which describes gravitational forces in terms of the curvature of spacetime caused by the presence of mass . As the American physicist John Wheeler put it: "Space tells matter how to move; matter tells space how to curve."
The starting principle of the general theory, known as the equivalence principle , is that frames of reference undergoing acceleration and frames of reference in gravitational fields are equivalent. Among its predictions, which have been borne out by observation, are the advance of the perihelion of Mercury , the bending of light in a gravitational field (including gravitational lenses ), and the spin-down of pulsars (due to the emission of gravitational waves , which have yet to be detected directly). Also predicted by general relativity is that time runs more slowly in strong gravitational fields.

70. General Relativity: Einstein: Physics
An explanation YOU can understand of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
Bumps and Wiggles: An Introduction to General Relativity
by Gary Felder
This paper is a brief introduction to the ideas of Einstein's general theory of relativity, one of the cornerstones of modern physics. The development of general relativity brought about a radical change in our concepts of space and time. This paper is not a course in general relativity, but after reading it you should have at least some understanding of what the theory says, and in particular how space and time are viewed in this context. The paper is almost entirely non-mathematical, but I do assume that you are already comfortable with some Newtonian physics and at least the basic ideas of special relativity. For the latter you could start with my brother's paper: " The Day the Universe Went All Funny For readers with a stronger background in physics there is also a sequel paper, " General Relativity II: A Deeper Look ," which goes into somewhat more detail about how the laws of general relativity are formulated. That paper assumes a working knowledge of calculus and introductory physics such as you would get in the first year or so of a university physics major.
Introduction: What General Relativity is About
General relativity (GR) can be viewed in a number of different ways. I will start by briefly describing two of these viewpoints and how they relate to each other.

71. Relativity, Space And Time
Science popularization article on the Theory of Relativity.

72. SpringerLink - General Relativity And Gravitation
Journal published by Springer, devoted to articles on general relativity and its applications.
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73. General Relativity Design
T shirts designed by General Relativity. Quirky, edgy shirts. General Relativity is a Perth WA Based TShirt and fashion accessory company with roots in the Perth motorcycling

74. Generalrelativity
This means I m now always interested in exceptional projects. Contact me at drew with any questions or interest.
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Game-Oriented Development
iPhone Game: BoomFriends!
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Constrained Dynamics 2: Joints and Global Constraints
February 15th, 2010 drew 14 comments In the previous article here Demo: Roll over to simulate slider-crank.
Global Form of the Constraint Problem
When we solved the particle-to-curve problem, it was sufficient to write the equations of motion in terms of the parabolic constraint. In the case that multiple constraints are acting upon a physical element, we need to write the equations of motion in terms of all constraints, because solving one may violate another. We could decide on a system configuration and solve each constraint force to derive the equations of motion, but that would be a lot of work; and not just once, but for each unique configuration. Instead, we can construct a linear system of the form Ax b , which can be solved for x generically. This allows us to piece together constraints anyway we like, which is a much more manageable way of setting up a simulation than sketching out the equations of motion for a giant, complex configuration. Now all we have to do is create this system, which basically just involves a lot of organization.

75. HowStuffWorks "How Special Relativity Works"
Helps understand the basic elements related to the topic.; OAS_AD('TopBanner'); HowStuffWorks
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How Special Relativity Works
by John Zavisa Cite This! Close Please copy/paste the following text to properly cite this HowStuffWorks article:
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  • Introduction to How Special Relativity Works 1.0 - The Fundamental Properties of the Universe Mass and Energy Light ... See all Everyday Myths articles
  • Physics: Einstein's Equation and Fission
    Jon Levy/AFP/ Getty Images
    Pages from Albert Einstein's original manuscript in which he defines his theory of relativity If you are a fan of science fiction, then you know that "relativity" is a fairly common part of the genre. For example, people on Star Trek are always talking about the space-time continuum, worm holes, time dilations and all sorts of other things that are based on the principle of relativity in one way or another. If you are a fan of science you know that relativity plays a big part there as well, especially when talking about things like black holes and astrophysics. If you have ever wanted to understand the fundamentals of relativity, then this edition of

    76. Jinx
    Another relational-like Unix simple files database.
    Next: Contents
    Henk P. Penning
    Computer Science Department, Utrecht University

    77. Unity
    Another Unix filter implementation of some relational ideas.

    78. Revolutionary Software, Inc.
    A very simple quasi-relational DBMS based on Unix shell commands.
  • Extreme, proven performance, reliabilty and scaleability
  • Integrate and Leverage System Administration
  • Completely integrated with the operating system and invisible to end-users
  • Low Total Cost of Ownership
  • Lowers implementation, licensing, hardware and ongoing costs
  • The Unix shell as a 4GL (Fourth Generation Language)
  • Unix provides hundreds of programs that can be piped together to easily perform almost any function imaginable. Nothing comes close to providing the functions that come standard with Unix. Programs and philosophies carried over from other systems put walls between the user and Unix, and the power of Unix is thrown away. The shell, extended with a few relational operators, is the fourth-generation database scripting language most appropriate to the Unix environment. /rdb® is a high-performance relational database management and application development system designed for Unix and implemented as a suite of 131 shell-level commands built with a callable API library.
    Unlike other fourth generation systems, /rdb® is an extension of the Unix environment, making available the full power of Unix during application development and usage. Database utilities such as sorttable, jointable, row, column and compute are programs invoked by the shell reading tables from the standard input and writing tables to the standard output. All of the relational operators are included, as well as several indexing methods, a vi-like forms editor, a powerful report generator, menus, and a number of data transformation utilities, including all the math library functions. /rdb® stores tables in efficient variable length ASCII files, making them accessible to ordinary Unix commands.
  • 79. General Relativity -- From Eric Weisstein's World Of Physics
    A theory invented by Albert Einstein which describes gravitational forces in terms of the curvature in space caused by the presence of mass. The fundamental principle of
    Modern Physics Relativity Theory General Relativity Miscellaneous General Relativity
    General Relativity

    A theory invented by Albert Einstein which describes gravitational forces in terms of the curvature in space caused by the presence of mass. The fundamental principle of general relativity asserts that accelerated reference frames and reference frames in gravitation fields are equivalent. General relativity states that clocks run slower in strong gravitational fields (or highly accelerated frames), predicting a gravitational redshift . It also predicts the existence of gravitational lensing gravitational waves gravitomagnetism , the Lense-Thirring effect , and relativistic precession of orbiting bodies. Bardeen-Petterson Effect Bertotti-Robinson Solution Black Hole Black Hole No Hair Theorem ... Schwarzschild Black Hole
    Adler, R.; Bazin, M.; and Schiffer, M. Introduction to General Relativity, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Anderson, J. L. Principles of Relativity Physics. New York: Academic Press, 1967. Bergmann, P. G.

    80. Starbase Data Tables
    An ASCII quasi-relational database for POSIX.
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    Starbase Data Tables
    starbase - an ASCII relational database for UNIX. Starbase is a set of filter programs and an ascii table format for UNIX. The current release contains over 95 programs for manipulating data tables. The ascii database concepts are outlined in the book Unix Relational Database Management by Manis, Schaffer and Jorgensen. This implementation has been written at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and contains many extensions for use with scientific and astrophysical data sets.

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