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         General Relativity:     more books (100)
  1. The Third Piece: Unifying General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Personal Identity by Anderthal Kord, 2010-07-15
  2. Special Relativity (Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series) (Volume 0) by N.M.J. Woodhouse, 2003-05-07
  3. The Evolution Problem in General Relativity by Sergiu Klainerman, Francesco Nicolo, 2002-12-13
  4. Special and General Relativity: With Applications to White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes (Astronomy and Astrophysics Library) by Norman K. Glendenning, 2010-11-02
  5. Introduction to General Relativity (Pure & Applied Physics) by Ronald Adler, 1975-06
  6. Group Theory and General Relativity: Representations of the Lorentz Group and Their Applications to the Gravitational Field by Moshe Carmeli, 2000-12-15
  7. Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics by Fulvio Melia, 2009-10-01
  8. General Relativity and Gravitational Waves by J. Weber, 2004-11-10
  9. Topics in general relativity (Interdisciplinary mathematics) by Robert Hermann, 1976
  10. General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics (Texts and Monographs in Physics) by Norbert Straumann, 1984-10
  11. The Universe of General Relativity (Einstein Studies)
  12. General Relativity and Cosmology by Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, 1979-07
  13. General Relativity by I.B. Khriplovich, 2010-11-02
  14. The Physical Foundations of General Relativity (Science Study) by D.W. Sciama, 1972-02-28

81. Sean Carroll: Lecture Notes On General Relativity
Lecture notes for a onesemester course in General Relativity.
Lecture Notes on General Relativity
This set of lecture notes on general relativity has been expanded into a textbook, Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity , available for purchase online or at finer bookstores everywhere. About 50% of the book is completely new; I've also polished and improved many of the explanations, and made the organization more flexible and user-friendly. The notes as they are will always be here for free. (gravitational waves disturbing a black hole, from NCSA
These lecture notes are a lightly edited version of the ones I handed out while teaching Physics 8.962, the graduate course in General Relativity at MIT , during Spring 1996. Each of the chapters is available here as uncompressed postscript, but see next paragraph. (Need a postscript previewer ?) Constructive comments and general flattery may be sent to me via the address below. Dates refer to the last nontrivial modification of the corresponding file (fixing typos doesn't count). The notes as a whole are available as gr-qc/9712019 Other formats: if you don't like postscript, the notes are

82. Topix Public Relations
News about the public relations industry, collected from various sources on the web. Public Relations news continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. en-us Reno Gazette-Journal Sun, 31 Oct 2010 01:57:20 GMT As the saying goes, no news is good news. But unfortunately, there's lots of news about real estate these days - most of it bad. RISMedia Sat, 30 Oct 2010 21:42:40 GMT It's a world in which more of us are earning our living from multiple sources of revenue. Jane Genova Sat, 30 Oct 2010 17:28:09 GMT Transcript Enlarge / Smithsonian Institution Born Ehrich Weiss, Harry Houdini, a rabbi's son, emigrated from Budapest to Appleton, Wis., in 1878.

83. Newman Communications
Public relations / media relations agency specializing in literary and corporate relations.
Newman Communications
Book Publicity, Corporate Publicity, Public Relations and more
Our Work

84. General Relativity
This metric is the basis of the three classic tests of Einstein s theory of general relativity 1) the perihelion advance of Mercury, 2) the bending of
Introduction to General Relativity
Problems with Newtonian Gravity Newton was fully aware of the conceptual difficulties of his action-at-a-distance theory of gravity. In a letter to Richard Bentley Newton wrote:
    It is inconceivable, that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else, which is not material, operate upon, and affect other matter without mutual contact; as it must do, if gravitation, ...., be essential and inherent in it. And this is one reason, why I desired you would not ascribe innate gravity to me. That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another, at a distance through vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it."
So, clearly, Newton believed that something had to convey gravitational influence from one body to another. When later it became clear that influences travel at finite speeds it was reasonable to suppose this true of gravity also. But Newton's law of gravity did not incorporate the finite travel time of gravitational influences. If right now the sun were to be destroyed by a passing black hole we would not feel the gravitational effects until about 8 minutes had elapsed. Because Newton's law did not include such retardation effects, and permitted violations of special relativity, it was clear that Newton's law had to be an approximation to the correct law of gravity.

85. Edwin F. Taylor - Downloads
Exploring Black Holes Introduction to General Relativity, by Edwin F. Taylor For purchase information, see the general relativity page of this website.
This page contains articles, software, sample chapters, and student workbooks. Jump to specific sections by using these quick links.
"Tactics for Change"
by Robert L. Halfman, M. L. A. McVicar, W. T. Martin, Edwin F. Taylor and Jerrold R. Zacharias, Occasional Paper No. 11 of The Education Research Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1972. A light-hearted, avuncular look at difficulties of academic change and tactics for change compiled by educational innovators of the 1960s and 1970s, long before Physics Education Research became a discipline of its own.
HTML version
(for reading on the screen)
pdf version
(~117K, requires free Acrobat Reader software
"Anatomy of Collaboration"
An account of the first collaboration, in the 1960s, of EFT and John Archibald Wheeler, on their special relativity textbook Space Time Physics . From the book Magic Without Magic: John Archibald Wheeler , edited by John R. Klauder, W.H. Freeman and Company, 1972

86. [physics/0507099] Relativistic Force Transformation
Formulas relating one and the same force in two inertial frames of reference are derived directly from the Lorentz transformation of space and time coordinates. physics
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Physics > Physics Education
Title: Relativistic force transformation
Authors: Valery P. Dmitriyev (Submitted on 13 Jul 2005) Abstract: Formulae relating one and the same force in two inertial frames of reference are derived directly from the Lorentz transformation of space and time coordinates and relativistic equation for the dynamic law of motion in three dimensions. We obtain firstly relativistic transformation for the velocity and acceleration of a particle. Then we substitute them in the relativistic dynamic equation and perform tedious algebraic manipulations. No recourse were made to "general rules for the transformation of 4-tensors". Formulae obtained were verified in electrodynamics. Comments: 6 pages Subjects: Physics Education (physics.ed-ph) Cite as: arXiv:physics/0507099v1 [physics.ed-ph]
Submission history
From: Valery P. Dmitriyev [

87. [math-ph/0309061] Imaginary In All Directions: An Elegant Formulation Of Special
There is a preferred algebra of quaternions and complex numbers that is ideally suited to express the equations of special relativity and classical electrodynamics. math-ph
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Mathematical Physics
Title: Imaginary in all directions: an elegant formulation of special relativity and classical electrodynamics
Authors: Martin Greiter Dirk Schuricht (Submitted on 30 Sep 2003) Abstract: A suitable parameterization of space-time in terms of one complex and three quaternionic imaginary units allows Lorentz transformations to be implemented as multiplication by complex-quaternionic numbers rather than matrices. Maxwell's equations reduce to a single equation. Comments: 8 pages Subjects: Mathematical Physics (math-ph) ; Other Condensed Matter (cond-mat.other); High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th); Physics Education (physics.ed-ph) Journal reference: Eur.J.Phys. 24 (2003) 397 DOI Cite as: arXiv:math-ph/0309061v1
Submission history
From: Dirk Schuricht [ view email
Tue, 30 Sep 2003 07:29:50 GMT (6kb)
Which authors of this paper are endorsers?

88. Unit 56
Self-tutorial with short essays, questions and answers.
Written for students in the USC Self-Paced Astronomy Courses Learning Objectives and References are in the Study Guide. Sample Questions are on the web at
ESSAY The Special Theory of Relativity
by J. L. Safko
A. Principle of Relativity,
Newton's theory of gravity, first studied in Unit 3, is intimately related to his concept of space and time. He considered space and time to be absolute concepts which existed independently of the material universe. Space was a stage in which the planets and stars existed. As time passed, the objects in the material universe evolved against the fixed background of space. Newton also formalized the concept of the inertial frame (or inertial coordinate system). A coordinate system (or coordinate frame) is a grid of rods and clocks at rest with respect to each other that spans a region of space. A simplified drawing of a coordinate system is shown in Fig. 56-1. Using this coordinate system we can describe events. Events are things that can be located at a particular place in space and that occur at a given time. The flashbulb firing on your camera would be an example of an event. The measurement of an event is determining the position and time of an event. We also term this measuring the coordinates of an event. An inertial frame (or an inertial coordinate frame) is a coordinate system in which Newton's first law holds. Newton's first law, as given in Unit 3, is that in the absence of outside forces any body moves with constant velocity. Any coordinate system moving with constant velocity with respect to an inertial system is also an inertial system. These inertial frames were assumed by Newton to be of infinite extent. They covered the entire universe. According to Newton, once you know any inertial frame, you know them all, since each differs from another by a constant velocity.

89. General Relativity Tutorial
Highly recommendable collection of interconnected web pages that serve as an informal introduction to general relativity. While some mathematics is used,
The General Relativity Tutorial
John Baez
This is bunch of interconnected web pages that serve as an informal introduction to that beautiful and amazingly accurate theory of gravity called general relativity . The goal is to explain the basic equation in this theory - Einstein's equation - with a minimum of fuss and muss. If you want, you can dive right in and read the adventures of This is the fun part! In these tales, the hapless peasant Oz learns general relativity from a grumpy but powerful wizard. But, unless you are already familiar with general relativity, to follow these adventures you'll need to look at other material from time to time, like this: Clicking on any of the underlined key concepts will then take you to the corresponding point in this more detailed When you're here, clicking on any underlined key concept takes you to a still more detailed exposition of that concept. A more formal presentation of all this material can be found here: including some extra stuff, but leaving out many other things.

90. Relativity (Kinematics)
Chapter of a classical mechanics text describes spatiotemporal effects. Includes problems and solutions.

91. GeneralRelativity Flash Animation Library | EverythingFlex: Flex & AIR
Sep 1, 2009 Some may say there are too many animation libraries for AS3, I disagree and fortunately so does Drew Cummins from as

92. General Relativity
books General Relativity. This is an undergraduate textbook on general relativity, at roughly the same level as Rindler's Essential Relativity or Hartle's Gravity.
books > General Relativity
This is an undergraduate textbook on general relativity, at roughly the same level as Rindler's Essential Relativity or Hartle's Gravity . The book is meant to be especially well adapted for self-study, and answers are given in the back of the book for almost all the problems. The ratio of conceptual to mathematical problems is higher than in most books. The focus is on "tensor-gymnastics" techniques, to the exclusion of index-free notation. Knowledge of first-year calculus and lower-division mechanics and electromagnetism is assumed. Special relativity is introduced from scratch, but it will be very helpful to have a thorough previous knowledge of SR, at the level of a book such as Taylor and Wheeler's excellent Spacetime Physics Download in Adobe Acrobat format View the HTML version (good for casual browsing, but not printer-friendly). Buy a printed copy LaTeX source code

93. History Of Special Relativity - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Wikipedia article on the genesis and development of special relativity and its precursors.
History of special relativity
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search "History of relativity" redirects here. For the history of general relativity, see history of general relativity Wikisource has original works on the topic: Historical Papers on Relativity The history of special relativity consists of many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert Michelson Hendrik Lorentz Henri Poincaré and others. It culminated in the theory of special relativity proposed by Albert Einstein , and subsequent work of Max Planck Hermann Minkowski and others.
edit Introduction
Although Isaac Newton based his theory on absolute space and time, he also adhered to the principle of relativity of Galileo Galilei . This stated that all observers who move uniformly relative to each other are equal and no absolute state of motion can be attributed to any observer. During the 19th century the aether theory was widely accepted, mostly in the form given by James Clerk Maxwell . According to Maxwell all optical and electrical phenomena propagate in a medium. Thus it seemed possible to determine

94. Relativity Priority Dispute - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Wikipedia article about the various contributors to special and general relativity, and about the contentious questions of who has priority on the different ideas and concepts involved, and in how far Einstein was influenced by his contemporaries and predecessors.
Relativity priority dispute
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards Please improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (July 2009) An editor has expressed a concern that this article lends undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, controversies or matters relative to the article subject as a whole. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (July 2009) Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that either contained no formal references to previous literature, or referred only to a small number of his predecessors for fundamental results on which he based his theories, most notably to the work of Hendrik Lorentz for special relativity, and to the work of Gauss Riemann , and Mach for general relativity. Subsequently claims have been put forward about both theories, asserting that they were formulated, either wholly or in part, by others before Einstein. At issue is the extent to which Einstein and various other individuals should be credited for the formulation of these theories, based on priority considerations.

95. MacTutor History Of Mathematics: General Relativity
Apr 29, 2007 This article reviews the history, theories and contributions that led Albert Einstein to formulate the theories of Special and General

96. General Relativity | Define General Relativity At
–noun Physics . See under relativity ( def. 2 Relativity

97. What Is General Relativity?
Sep 9, 2010 Brief and Straightforward Guide What is General Relativity?

98. Is The Special Theory Of Relativity Wrong?
Presents a brief theoretical proof that would strongly suggest that the special theory of relativity is fundamentally flawed ; by Greg Alexander.
Is the Special Theory of Relativity Wrong?
Author: Greg Alexander
Date: 17 Sept 2003
These days it would appear that the Special Theory of Relativity was beyond any form of doubt however I have a theoretical proof that would strongly suggest that the theory is fundamentally flawed. Indeed the proof is so straight forward it is a wonder so many supposedly acute minds have previously overlooked it. The proof runs as follows :
The origin of this scientific red herring lies with the famous (though some may perhaps argue infamous) Michelson-Morley experiment. It was conducted by the two Americans whom it was named after in 1887 in order to prove or disprove the existence of ‘aether’, the enigmatic substance thought to be contained in a vacuum upon which a light wave was able to move upon. The apparatus consisted of two beams of light meeting at right angles at an interferometer. If the Earth’s speed effected either of the velocities of the light beams then the interference pattern obtained would change. However it was found that the speed of the Earth about the Sun did not appear to effect the interference pattern in any way and it was upon this observation that Einstein based his Special Theory of Relativity.
However just the briefest look at the exact set-up of the apparatus used by Michelson and Morley clearly reveals that the experiment could never have worked anyway. Indeed the logic supporting it is so flawed it is a wonder that no-one appears to have ever noticed. The two light beams which meet at the interferometer first travel away from it and at equal distances are reflected back again to the same half-silvered glass it started from. However because each light beam exactly doubles back on itself each time, it is obvious what the light beam would have gained as a result of the Earth’s velocity in one direction, it would exactly lose on the way back again in the opposite direction, and vice versa. Indeed the experiment would never have proved or disproved the existence of the aether either.

99. General Relativity - Cambridge University Press
General Relativity An Introduction for Physicists provides a clear mathematical introduction to Einstein's theory of general relativity. It presents a wide range of applications

100. Anti Relativity : The Theory Of Anti Relativity
Website presenting what the author claims to be experimental evidence against relativity, as well as more philosophical arguments and proposed explanations of the various experimental effects in terms of an ether theory. Includes a discussion board.
Some of you who have just arrived at this site already have a self-satisfied smirk of superiority. Many of you are at least amused and find the topic absurd. I would like to take this opportunity to point that fact out to you. Take a moment to objectively appraise your current pre-conceived notions about the topic and the strength of your convictions in those same notions. What is the foundation of your belief? Have you personally examined the points and counter-points of the argument thoroughly and open-mindedly with logic and the scientific method or do you instead rely upon “your betters” to appraise the truthfulness of your beliefs? Are you so completely convinced of your opinion, that before even examining new evidence, you will immediately discard the heretical data without thorough consideration? If the answer is yes, (and for many it is) then you must admit you have built your belief system using exactly the same method as any religious zealot. Though this zealotry will not culminate in terrorist acts, the results of an unexamined belief system pervading the scientific community could be devastating. If you wish to distance yourself from that appraisal, then I will provide for you here, a resource to examine the evidence against relativity. You should note that the very top link on the left is the most important; it is the experimental evidence for and against relativity. I will examine a fair number of the experiments usually equated with proving relativity, as well as experimental data disproving relativity. I will be providing the Anti-Relativity point of view for all the evidence as a balance to the ubiquitous nature of the Pro-Relativity viewpoint; however, if I have structured that section of this site properly, and you are indeed a non-biased reader, you will have significant reason to openly examine other portions of this site.

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