Extractions: Numerical Computation Guide Appendix D What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic This appendix is an edited reprint of the paper What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic Floating-point arithmetic is considered an esoteric subject by many people. This is rather surprising because floating-point is ubiquitous in computer systems. Almost every language has a floating-point datatype; computers from PCs to supercomputers have floating-point accelerators; most compilers will be called upon to compile floating-point algorithms from time to time; and virtually every operating system must respond to floating-point exceptions such as overflow. This paper presents a tutorial on those aspects of floating-point that have a direct impact on designers of computer systems. It begins with background on floating-point representation and rounding error, continues with a discussion of the IEEE floating-point standard, and concludes with numerous examples of how computer builders can better support floating-point. Categories and Subject Descriptors: (Primary) C.0 [Computer Systems Organization]: General
Extractions: LinuxCommand Learning the shell Writing shell scripts Script library ... Next by William Shotts, Jr. Up to now, our scripts have not been interactive. That is, they did not require any input from the user. In this lesson, we will see how your scripts can ask questions, and get and use responses. To get input from the keyboard, you use the read command. The read command takes input from the keyboard and assigns it to a variable. Here is an example: #!/bin/bash echo read text echo "You entered: $text" As you can see, we displayed a prompt on line 3. Note that " -n " given to the echo command causes it to keep the cursor on the same line; i.e., it does not output a carriage return at the end of the prompt. Next, we invoke the read command with " text " as its argument. What this does is wait for the user to type something followed by a carriage return (the Enter key) and then assign whatever was typed to the variable text Here is the script in action: [me@linuxbox me]$ read_demo.bash
Arithmetic Sequences By MATHguide Learn how to calculate with Arithmetic Sequences. In this section, you will learn how to identify arithmetic sequences, calculate the nth term in arithmetic sequences, find http://mathguide.com/lessons/SequenceArithmetic.html
Extractions: Arithmetic Sequences Main Lesson Page MATHguide.com Updated August 18th, 2008 Introduction In this section, you will learn how to identify arithmetic sequences calculate the nth term in arithmetic sequences find the number of terms in an arithmetic sequence and find the sum of arithmetic sequences . Soon, you will be invited to try our quizmasters at the end of the lesson. For sequence A, if we add 3 to the first number we will get the second number. This works for any pair of consecutive numbers. The second number plus 3 is the third number: 8 + 3 = 11, and so on. For sequence B, if we add 5 to the first number we will get the second number. This also works for any pair of consecutive numbers. The third number plus 5 is the fourth number: 36 + 5 = 41, which will work throughout the entire sequence. Sequence C is a little different because we need to add -2 to the first number to get the second number. This too works for any pair of consecutive numbers. The fourth number plus -2 is the fifth number: 14 + (-2) = 12.
Arithmetic - Carl Sandburg Arithmetic is where numbers fly like pigeons in and out of your head. Arithmetic tells you how many you lose or win if you know how many you had before http://katherinestange.com/mathweb/p_a.html
Arithmetic Definition Of Arithmetic In The Free Online Encyclopedia. arithmetic, branch of mathematics mathematics, deductive study of numbers, geometry, and various abstract constructs, or structures; the latter often abstract the features http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/arithmetic
Arithmetic Game - Online Speed Drill The Arithmetic Game is a speed drill where you are given two minutes to solve as many arithmetic problems as you can. Start a game. Addition Range ( http://arithmetic.zetamac.com/
Arithmetic Summary | BookRags.com Arithmetic. Arithmetic summary with 5 pages of encyclopedia entries, research information, and more. http://www.bookrags.com/research/arithmetic-wom/
Peano Axioms - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are a set of axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peano_arithmetic
Extractions: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Peano arithmetic Jump to: navigation search In mathematical logic , the Peano axioms , also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates , are a set of axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano . These axioms have been used nearly unchanged in a number of metamathematical investigations, including research into fundamental questions of consistency and completeness of number theory The need for formalism in arithmetic was not well appreciated until the work of Hermann Grassmann , who showed in the 1860s that many facts in arithmetic could be derived from more basic facts about the successor operation and induction In 1881, Charles Sanders Peirce provided an axiomatization of natural number arithmetic. In 1888, Richard Dedekind proposed a collection of axioms about the numbers, and in 1889 Peano published a more precisely formulated version of them as a collection of axioms in his book, The principles of arithmetic presented by a new method Latin Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita
Math Games: Arithmetic Fun free online math game teaches arithmetic. http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/mathgames/arithmetic/arithmetic.htm
10 Easy Arithmetic Tricks - Top 10 Lists | Listverse Sep 17, 2007 Top 10 Lists Math can be terrifying for many people. This list will hopefully improve your general knowledge of mathematical tricks and http://listverse.com/2007/09/17/10-easy-arithmetic-tricks/
Arithmetic Sequences By MATHguide In this section, you will learn how to identify arithmetic sequences, calculate the nth term in arithmetic sequences, find the number of terms in an http://www.mathguide.com/lessons/SequenceArithmetic.html
Extractions: Arithmetic Sequences Main Lesson Page MATHguide.com Updated August 18th, 2008 Introduction In this section, you will learn how to identify arithmetic sequences calculate the nth term in arithmetic sequences find the number of terms in an arithmetic sequence and find the sum of arithmetic sequences . Soon, you will be invited to try our quizmasters at the end of the lesson. For sequence A, if we add 3 to the first number we will get the second number. This works for any pair of consecutive numbers. The second number plus 3 is the third number: 8 + 3 = 11, and so on. For sequence B, if we add 5 to the first number we will get the second number. This also works for any pair of consecutive numbers. The third number plus 5 is the fourth number: 36 + 5 = 41, which will work throughout the entire sequence. Sequence C is a little different because we need to add -2 to the first number to get the second number. This too works for any pair of consecutive numbers. The fourth number plus -2 is the fifth number: 14 + (-2) = 12.
The Math Forum - Math Library - Arithmetic/Early The Math Forum's Internet Math Library is a comprehensive catalog of Web sites and Web pages relating to the study of mathematics. This page contains sites relating to Arithmetic http://mathforum.org/library/topics/arithmetic/
Extractions: A project designed to challenge elementary students with non-routine problems and to encourage them to verbalize their solutions. From 1995 to 2002, solutions submitted from students for the Elementary Problem of the Week were answered by Visiting Math Mentors, and students had an opportunity to correspond with their mentor. The problems were intended for students in grades 3-6 (ages 8-12), but may also be appropriate for students in other grades. more>>
Interactivate: Arithmetic Four Arithmetic Four A game like Fraction Four but instead of fraction questions the player must answer arithmetic questions (addition, subtraction, http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/ArithmeticFour/
Arithmetic - Definition Of Arithmetic At YourDictionary.com noun. the science or art of computing by positive real numbers, specif. by adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing; knowledge of or skill in this science her arithmetic http://www.yourdictionary.com/arithmetic
Arithmetic - New World Encyclopedia Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός, meaning number ) is the oldest and most fundamental branch of mathematics. It is used by almost everyone, for http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Arithmetic
Extractions: Jump to: navigation search Previous (Aristotle) Next (Arius) Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word meaning "number") is the oldest and most fundamental branch of mathematics. It is used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. Some have called it the "science of numbers." Our knowledge of and skill in using arithmetic operations is part of our definition of literacy. In common usage, arithmetic refers to a branch of mathematics that records elementary properties of certain operations on numbers . Professional mathematicians sometimes use the term higher arithmetic as a synonym for number theory, but this should not be confused with elementary arithmetic. The traditional arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, although more advanced operations (such as manipulations of percentages, square root, exponentiation, and logarithmic functions ) are also sometimes included in this subject. Any set of objects upon which all four operations of arithmetic can be performed (except division by zero), and wherein these four operations obey the usual laws, is called a field.
Arithmetic Following are some items relating to arithmetic discussed in the history . About 1478 in Treviso, Italy, Treviso Arithmetic showed 4 ways of multiplying. http://www.math.wichita.edu/history/topics/arithmetic.html
Extractions: Topic Tree Home Following are some items relating to arithmetic discussed in the history of mathematics. Contents of this Page Egyptian Arithmetic The Venn Diagram Arithmetic Around the World: Multiplication Rules for Divisibility Egyptian Arithmetic The Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to use mathematics in an extensive setting. Their system was derived from base ten and this was probably so because of the number of fingers and toes. In later years the Greeks would use the abstract qualities of math, however, it appears the Egyptians were only concerned with the practical aspects of numbers. For example while the Greeks might actually use see and think the number six, the Egyptians would need concrete items such as such as six sphinxes. Egyptian numbers were represented by symbols in the following way: a rod for the number one, a heal bone for ten, a snare for 100, a lotus flower for 1,000, a bent finger for 10,000, a burbot fish for 100,000, and a kneeling figure for 1,000,000. Decimal Symbol a rod a heel bone a snare a lotus flower a pointing finger a burbot fish a kneeling figure Their number system worked very well when doing addition or subtraction. The numbers were grouped together in no particular order and the operation was performed. In one example, from the Rhind Papyrus, addition and subtraction signs were represented through figures which resemble the legs of a person advancing for addition, and departing for subtraction.
Extractions: ACT Test Practice Accuplacer Test Practice AEPA Exam Practice ARDMS Exam Practice ... Wonderlic Test Practice Other Exams Test Vocabulary Prefixes and Suffixes Test Timing ... Test Difficulty Graduate School College Directory Distance Learning Student Loan Tips ... Site Map 1. Add 0.98 + 45.102 + 32.3333 + 31 + 0.00009 A. 368.573